Europe 47 AD: Roman Conquest of Britain

Political map of Europe & the Mediterranean on 30 Apr 47 AD (Julio-Claudian Dynasty: Roman Conquest of Britain), showing the following events: Plautius’ Campaigns in Britain; Claudian Rhodes; Roman Mauretania; Parthian Civil War of 45–47; Roman Thrace; Jacob and Simon Uprising; Gannascus; Paul’s Missionary Journeys.

Following the capture of Camulodunon (43 AD), Claudius returned to the continent, leaving command in Britain to his general Aulus Plautius. Accepting the Iceni, Dobunni, and Brigantes as client states, Plautius consolidated the Roman hold in southern Britain by conquering the Catuvellauni heartland. Defeated, Caratacus, the last Catuvellauni king, fled to what is now Wales, where British tribes would continue to resist the invaders for several decades.

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Main Events

43–47 AD Plautius’ Campaigns in Britain

Following the Roman capture of Camulodunon (43 AD), Claudius left Britain for the continent and Aulus Plautius took over as military governor. Plautius conquered the Catuvellauni heartland in what is now Hertfordshire, accepting the Iceni, Dobunni, and Brigantes as client states. Suppressing the Corieltauvi and Durotriges, Plautius chased the remaining Catuvellauni resisters under Caratacus across the Severn into the territory of the Silures. By the end of Plautius’ campaigns in 47 AD the Romans had established their rule over all Britain south of the River Trent and east of modern Cornwall and wikipedia

44–53? AD Claudian Rhodes

In 44 AD Claudius annexed the Roman client state of Rhodes, incorporating it into the province of Asia. However, he later restored the island to its independence following an impassioned speech in Greek on its behalf by his fifteen-year-old great-nephew and adopted son, Nero. Rhodes would then continue on as a client state until annexed by Vespasian in 70 wikipedia

44 AD Roman Mauretania

In about 44 AD the Emperor Claudius ordered the annexation of Mauretania to Rome, dividing the former kingdom into two imperial provinces: Mauretania Tingitana, named after its capital, Tingis (Tangier); and Mauretania Caesariensis, named after its capital, Caesarea. The two provinces were separated by the Mulucha (Molouya River) with the traditional, though not effective, southern boundary being the Atlas wikipedia

45?–47 AD Parthian Civil War of 45–47

In the mid-40s AD Gotarzes II—who had formerly surrendered the throne of Parthia to his brother, Vardanes I, to restore peace—reneged on his agreement and assembled a force in Hyrcania. Vadanes marched north, defeating Gotarzes at the Charinda River and driving him over the River Sindes—the boundary between the Dahae and the Arians. However, at this moment of victory, Vardanes was assassinated by his some of followers and Gotarzes was proclaimed shah once wikipedia

46 AD Roman Thrace

In 46 AD King Rhoemetalces III of Thrace was murdered—either by his wife and co-ruler, Pythodoris II, or by insurgents. The subsequent fate of Pythodoris is unknown, but apparently they had no children. Following this, Claudius annexed the kingdom as the Roman imperial province of wikipedia

46–48 AD Jacob and Simon Uprising

In 44 AD Herod Agrippa died and Claudius annexed his Kingdom of Judea to Rome, further inciting the burgeoning Zealot movement, which had grown popular among the Jews during Caligula’s antagonist reign. In 46 the Zealots rallied under Jacob and Simon—sons of Zealot founder Judas of Galilee—and began an insurgency. After two years of fighting, the two were caught and executed by the Roman authorities, hampering the wikipedia

47 AD Gannascus

Learning of the death of Sanquinius, Roman commander in Lower Germania, in 47 AD, Gannascus—a Frisian-born deserter from the Roman auxiliary—led the Chauci by sea to ravage the coast of Gaul. While these raids were underway, Sanquinius’ replacement Corbulo arrived and promptly made use of the Roman river fleet to intercept and expel the invaders. Corbulo then persuaded the Greater Chauci subtribe to betray and assassinate Gannascus, but was prevented from further actions against the German tribes by orders from the emperor Claudius. in wikipedia

47–66 AD Paul’s Missionary Journeys

In the 30s AD Saul of Tarsus—a Jew and Roman citizen who would become famous as Paul the Apostle—converted to Christianity and began spreading his faith to gentiles (non-Jews). Between 47 and 56 AD he traveled to Antioch, Cyprus, Pamphylia, Galatia, Cilicia, Asia Minor, Macedonia, and Achaia, establishing several churches along the way. In 59, after being denounced in Judea, he was sent to Rome—by now already home to a significant Christian community—where he was eventually trialed and beheaded (c.66 AD). in wikipedia