Europe 435: Treaty of Hippo Regius

Political map of Europe & the Mediterranean on 11 Feb 435 (Theodosian Dynasty: Fall of Africa: Treaty of Hippo Regius), showing the following events: Exile of Sebastianus; Rugila’s Danubian crisis; First Revolt of Gundahar; Treaty of Hippo Regius.

In 434, feeling threatened by Rugila’s Huns, the Eastern Roman Empire recalled its general Aspar and his troops from Africa, where they had been campaigning against Gaiseric’s Vandals. As this left Africa vulnerable, the Western generalissimo Aetius made peace with the Vandals in early 435 by granting them land and recognizing them as Roman foederati.

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Main Events

433–450 Exile of Sebastianus

In 433, while Flavius Aetius took power in Ravenna and married Bonifatius’ widow Pelagia, Bonifatius’ son-in-law Sebastianus fled Italy to take refuge with the court in Constantinople. He stayed there until 444 when, undermined by intrigues and with his followers accused of piracy, he fled again, first to the Visigoths in Gaul, then to Barcelona, and finally to live with the Vandals in Africa. Here King Gaiseric accepted him as an advisor but gradually grew to mistrust him and in 450 had him murdered. in wikipedia

434–435 Rugila’s Danubian crisis

In around 434 the Amilzuri, Itimari, Tounsoures, Boisci, and other Danubian tribes fled Hunnic rule for Roman territory, where they offered their services to the Eastern emperor Theodosius II. Angered, the Hunnic king Rugila sent his envoy Esla to demand that the Eastern Romans return these and other fugitives, beginning a confrontation that convinced Theodosius’ court to recall the Eastern general Aspar from Africa, where he was campaigning against the Vandals. It is uncertain whether the Huns followed these events by invading the Roman Empire, but the crisis ended towards the end of 435, when Rugila suddenly died in his own lands. in wikipedia

434 First Revolt of Gundahar

About a year after Flavius Aetius’ return to power in 433, the Burgundian king Gundahar—better known by his legendary names Gunther or Gunnar—revolted against Roman rule and raided into the Gallic province of Belgica Prima. As Aetius was in Italy, and it was perhaps late in the year, it would not be until 435 that the Romans were able to mount a counteroffensive. in wikipedia

11 Feb 435 Treaty of Hippo Regius

Learning that the Eastern Roman court was intent on recalling its general Aspar and his army from Africa, the Western magister militum Aetius dispatched the official Trygetius there to negotiate terms with the Vandal king Gaiseric in late 434. The following February, after much discussion, the Vandals agreed to peace at Hippo Regius, becoming Roman foederati in return for lands in Numidia and Mauretania. As part of this treaty, the Romans also seem to have officially recognized Gaiseric as a military commander and granted him the title dux. in wikipedia