Europe 367: Great Conspiracy

Political map of Europe & the Mediterranean on 24 Aug 367 (Valentinianic Dynasty: Great Conspiracy), showing the following events: Second Austoriani Raid; Valens’ First Isaurian War; Valens’ First Gothic War; Great Conspiracy; Great Conspiracy in Gaul; Severus and Jovinus expeditions; Accession of Kidara I; Elevation of Gratian.

In 367 an apparent alliance of Celtic and Germanic tribes, aided by Romano-British deserters, overran Roman Britain and attacked northern Gaul. While moving to deal with the situation, Valentinian fell ill, prompting him to proclaim his young son Gratian as co-Augustus to forestall a succession crisis.

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Main Events

367 Second Austoriani Raid

After facing no Roman reprisals for their first raid (c. 364), the Austoriani mounted a second major raid on Roman Africa in 367. Overrunning the territory around the cities of Leptis Magna and Oea (Tripoli), they killed a number of decurions before withdrawing with vast quantities of booty. Learning of this latest raid while in Gaul, an outraged Valentinian sent the tribune Palladius to Africa to inspect the defenses of Africa and investigate allegations of corruption against the commanding general, Count Romanus. in wikipedia

367–368 Valens’ First Isaurian War

In 367 brigands based in Isauria began attacks on the neighboring provinces of Pamphylia and Cilicia, causing great devastation in the region. To deal with the situation, the vicarius Asiae Musonius attempted to hunt down the raiders with a body of armed militia, but was ambushed and killed in the mountains. This persuaded Valens to send in the Roman army and in 368, near Germanicopolis (Ermenek), the Isaurians agreed to peace. in wikipedia

May 367–Sep 369 Valens’ First Gothic War

In 366, not long after the defeat of Procopius, the Roman emperor Valens imprisoned a number of Tervingi Gothic auxiliaries who had ventured into Thrace in support of the usurper. As this merely exacerbated the bitterness between the Romans and the Tervingi, the following year Valens led an army across the Danube into Gothia, only for the Tervingi to avoid battle by melting away into the Carpathians. Although floods made a second invasion in 368 impractical, Valens finally defeated the Goths on their own soil in 369, after which the two sides agreed to peace. in wikipedia

Jun–?? 367 Great Conspiracy

In mid-367 a ‘barbarian conspiracy’ involving the Pictish tribes of the Dicalydones and the Verturiones, as well as the warlike Attacotti and the Scoti attacked Roman Britain by land and sea. As the invaders arrived, Romano-British frontier scouts and troops, possibly including the garrison of Hadrian’s Wall, either joined them or deserted. Killing Nectaridus, Roman commander of the seacoast, and ambushing the general Fullofaudes, the barbarians soon overran and plundered Britain as far as the outskirts of Londinium. in wikipedia

367 Great Conspiracy in Gaul

While the ‘barbarian conspiracy’ overran Britain in 367, Frankish and Saxon raiders harassed the Gallic coast, plundering and burning settlements and killing the inhabitants. It is possible that they also invaded southeast Britain, in particular Kent, as part of the assault on the Roman Saxon Shore defenses. in wikipedia

Jun–Aug 367 Severus and Jovinus expeditions

Learning of the crisis in Britain in June 367, Valentinian marched to Samarobriva (Amiens) and dispatched the comes domesticorum Severus to deal with the situation. When it became clear that Severus was insufficiently prepared, he was recalled and replaced by the veteran magister equitum Jovinus. However, even Jovinus soon returned, informing Valentinian that the island was now in a dire state and that any expedition would require a strong army. in wikipedia

367? Accession of Kidara I

In about 367 the Chionite ruler Kidara deposed the last Kushano-Sasanian king Varahran Kushanshah, by this point merely a puppet of his, and formally took the title of Kushanshah himself. There is some dispute among modern historians as to whether this marks the beginning of the Chionite or the Kidarite kingdom, but contemporary sources continued to refer to these people as the Chionites. in wikipedia

24 Aug 367 Elevation of Gratian

In the summer of 367 Valentinian fell ill and at one point was so close to death that the Gallic legions began arguing over the appointment of a new emperor. Although his recovery put an abrupt end to this dispute, Valentinian immediately resolved to clarify the succession by appointing his eight-year-old son Gratian as co-Augustus. Despite Gratian’s age—and the unusual move of making him Augustus rather than Caesar—the appointment was met with approval by the troops. in wikipedia