Europe 1860: Expedition of the Thousand
In return for French support, Sardinia ceded Savoy and Nice to France. Free to move south, the Sardinians secretly sent the famed Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi with a thousand volunteers to land in Sicily and overthrow the powerful Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
18–22 Mar 1860 Annexation of the United Provinces of Central Italy▲
Unwilling to break the Treaty of Zürich by annexing the United Provinces of Central Italy, but also unwilling to enforce the treaty by restoring the old regimes, King Victor Emanuel II of Sardinia recalled the former prime minister Cavour in January 1860. Cavour quickly entered into talks with the British and French and, having gained their support, arranged plebiscites in the territories of Central Italy. Backed by the favorable results, the Kingdom of Sardinia annexed the Royal Provinces of Emilia on the 18th and Tuscany on the 22nd.
24 Mar 1860 Treaty of Turin▲
In exchange for French support in seizing Lombardy-Venetia from the Austrian Empire in 1859, the Kingdom of Sardinia had agreed to cede Nice and Savoy to France, but this pact was broken by Napoleon III’s armistice with the Austrians. To resolve the issue, France accepted Sardinia’s annexation of Central Italy and in return Sardinia signed the Treaty of Turin in March 1860, affirming that it would cede Savoy and Nice on the condition that their populations consented to it. Plebiscites held in both regions the following month overwhelmingly supported French annexation, which took place soon afterwards.
11 May 1860 Garibaldi’s Redshirts land at Marsala▲
Garibaldi’s Redshirts land at Marsala
27–28 May 1860 Garibaldi’s Redshirts take Palermo▲
Garibaldi’s Redshirts take Palermo