Europe 412: Athaulf and Jovinus
Jovinus gained control in Arelate (Arles) in late 411 and early the following year accepted the alliance of the Goths, who had entered Gaul under Alaric’s successor Athaulf. However, relations between the two soon soured, especially after Athaulf killed Sarus, another of Jovinus’ new Gothic allies, and Jovinus appointed his own brother Sebastianus as co-emperor.
411 Fall of Arelate▲
In late 411, with Jovinus and his allies advancing from northern Gaul and Athaulf and his Goths approaching from the Italian coast, Flavius Constantius decided his position in Arelate (Arles) was untenable and withdrew to Ravenna. Jovinus occupied Arelate soon afterwards, apparently making it his headquarters. However, many Romans in Gaul remained loyal to Honorius and even conducted a counteroffensive against Jovinus and his Frankish allies in Auvergne.
411? Treaty of Hispaniae▲
Left politically isolated by the fall of Gerontius in mid 411, the Alans, Vandals, and Suebi in Hispaniae soon reached out to the emperor Honorius in Ravenna, offering him military support in return for peace. With his regime itself in no position to reconquer Spain, Honorius grudgingly accepted these terms, even though the barbarians dominated the diocese and continued to host the former usurper Maximus.
412 Death of Sarus▲
In early 412 Athaulf and his Goths crossed from Italy into Gaul and became allies of the Gallic usurper Jovinus. However, at about the same time, Sarus, Athaulf’s bitter rival and fellow Goth, broke with Honorius’ court at Ravenna and also made his way across the Alps with the intention of joining Jovinus. Seizing this opportunity, Athaulf ambushed and captured Sarus as he was entering Gaul, then had him killed.
412 Elevation of Sebastianus▲
Athaulf’s killing of Sarus in early 412 displeased Jovinus, who did not like his allies fighting and was already disturbed by the presence of the former usurper Attalus in Athaulf’s party. This would not have helped the Gothic king gain influence in Jovinus’ court and soon afterwards, going against Athaulf’s advice, Jovinus appointed his own brother Sebastianus as co-augustus. Angered, Athaulf secretly entered into negotiations with Dardanus, Honorius’ Praetorian Prefect of Gaul.