Europe 1861: Kingdom of Italy

The conquest of the Two Sicilies left the Kingdom of Sardinia in control of the entire Italian peninsula except for the French-garrisoned Papal States and the Austrian controlled northeast. On 17 March 1861 the Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed, with the former Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia as its ruler.

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Main Events

20 Dec 1860 Secession of South Carolina

On 9 November 1860 the South Carolina General Assembly passed a “Resolution to Call the Election of Abraham Lincoln as U.S. President a Hostile Act” and stated its intention to declare secession from the United States. The following month, on 20 December, South Carolina declared its secession from the Union as the “Republic of South Carolina”, becoming the first of the slave states to wikipedia

13 Feb 1861 Surrender of Francis II of the Two Sicilies

In February 1861 Francis II of the Two Sicilies and his queen Maria Sophie agreed to capitulate to the Sardinian army at Gaeta, bringing an end to their defense of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (although the northern city of Civitella del Tronto would continue to hold out until 20 March). Fleeing to the Papal States, the two monarchs soon set up a government in exile that would be recognized by some Catholic powers—including France, Austria-Hungary, Spain, and Bavaria—but were forced to evacuate by 1870, just before the fall of Rome to the Italian army. After this the couple lived an itinerant lifestyle until Francis II’s death in 1894. in wikipedia

17 Mar 1861 Kingdom of Italy

On 18 February 1861, just days after the surrender of Francis II of the Two Sicilies, a new Italian Parliament met at Palazzo Carignano, Turin, as a continuation of the Parliament of the Kingdom of Sardinia but with a Chamber of Deputies including elected parliamentarians from all the provinces and a Senate composed of senators appointed by King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia from across Italy. Both bodies voted for Victor Emmanuel to gain the crown of Italy and on 17 March this became law, with the King becoming Victor Emmanuel II of Italy. This proclamation marked the official unification of Italy as the Kingdom of Italy. in wikipedia