Europe 1815: Waterloo to Paris
Following his defeat at Waterloo, Napoleon raced back to Paris to rally more political support but was instead forced to abdicate. Attempting to flee to the United States, Napoleon soon fell into British hands and was exiled to the remote South Atlantic island of Saint Helena. Meanwhile, the Prussian and Anglo-allied armies chased the retreating French forces back into France, securing the surrender of Paris in early July.
18 Jun–7 Jul 1815 Waterloo to Paris▲
Following their defeat at Waterloo (18 June 1815) the French Army of the North, under the command of Napoleon, retreated in disarray back towards France. They were closely pursued by the Duke of Wellington’s Anglo-allied army and Prince Blücher’s Prussian army, who refused to give the French a chance to reorganize. After making a last stand at Paris, the French agreed to capitulate, allowing the Anglo-allies and Prussians to occupy Paris on 7 July.
19 Jun–21 Jul 1815 Minor campaigns of 1815▲
In late June 1815 Austrian, Prussian, Russian, and allied German forces crossed the Rhine south of Belgium in four main columns, advancing on Paris via Sedan, Metz, Strasbourg, and Basel. Simultaneously, the Austrian Army of Italy invaded France from the south, capturing Lyon and Grenoble, while the British Royal Navy secured French holdings in the Mediterranean. The converging armies reached Paris in mid-July, where they arranged for the temporary occupation of France.
22 Jun 1815 Second Abdication of Napoleon▲
After his defeat at Waterloo, Napoleon hurried back to Paris to rally political support, arriving on the afternoon of 21 June–just hours after news of the defeat had reached the city. He was met with strong opposition and the following day agreed to abdicate in favor of his son Napoleon II—who was just 4-years-old and living in Vienna at the time. On 24 June a Provisional Government was proclaimed in Paris, effectively ending the French Empire and any role Napoleon II might have. Napoleon left the capital the next day, hoping to escape to the United States, but was instead forced to surrender to the British captain Frederick Maitland in July, becoming a prisoner aboard HMS Bellerophon.
3 Jul 1815 Convention of Saint-Cloud▲
On 3 July 1815 Marshal Davout, commander of the French army, signed the Convention of Saint-Cloud, bringing a formal end to the hostilities of the Hundred Days. The French army agreed to evacuate Paris and withdraw to the south of the Loire, allowing the armies of Prince Blücher and the Duke of Wellington to occupy the city. In return, the allies promised to respect the rights and property of local government and the French people.