Europe 1925: Locarno Conference
By 1925, Germany and the European Allies wanted to restore good relations. As a result, they signed the Locarno Treaties whereby Germany accepted the changes in its western borders. While no guarantee was made for her eastern borders, Germany did agree not to alter those borders by force.
16 Aug 1924–25 Aug 1925 Evacuation of the Ruhr▲
The Franco-Belgian occupation of the Ruhr in 1923 saw widespread sympathy for the plight of the Germany. To resolve the crisis, an international committee headed by American financier Charles Dawes put forward the Dawes Plan in April 1924, whereby the foreign occupation of the Ruhr would end and Germany would commit to staggered repayments of its war reparations. Facing passive resistance and a collapsing German economy alongside global condemnation, the French eventually signed the Dawes Plan on 16 August and withdrew over the following year.
1 Dec 1925 Treaty of Mutual Guarantee▲
In October 1925 the Locarno Treaties were negotiated at Locarno, Switzerland, to normalize relations between Germany and the countries of Europe. Signed in London in December, the most important of these treaties was the Treaty of Mutual Guarantee, in which the post-WWI frontiers of Belgium, France, and Germany were guaranteed by Britain and Italy. As part of this agreement, Germany accepted the continued demilitarization of the Rhineland after the withdrawal of the Allied occupation forces.
1 Dec 1925 Treaties of Arbitration▲
As part of the Locarno Treaties, Germany agreed to four treaties of arbitration—with Belgium, with France, with Poland, and with Czechoslovakia—regarding future disputes. However, although Germany’s borders with France and Belgium were guaranteed by the first Locarno Treaty (the Treaty of Mutual Guarantee), those with Poland and Czechoslovakia were still open to negotiation. As reassurance, France therefore signed treaties of guarantee with Poland and Czechoslovakia to provide mutual support against unprovoked attack.