Europe 1918: Armistice Day
Following the German Revolution of November 1918, a republic was proclaimed and the Kaiser fled the country. On November 11, the new German government signed an armistice with the Allies. The Great War was at an end, but chaos still reigned across much of Europe.
9 Nov 1918 German Republic proclaimed▲
German Chancellor Max von Baden announced the abdication of the German Kaiser Wilhelm II and turned the government over to the Social Democrat Party (SPD). Despite SPD leader Friedrich Ebert’s wishes to retain the monarchy, SPD chairman Philipp Scheidemann then announced the end of the German monarchy and the creation of a new German Republic from the balcony of the Reichstag in Berlin. Unable to secure the loyalty of the army, the Kaiser fled to the Netherlands the following day.
10 Nov 1918 Romania Declares War on Germany▲
Following the surrender of Bulgaria and the arrival of Allied forces in southern Romania, a new pro-Allied government under General Constantine Coanda had taken power in Romania on 8 November 1918. On 10 November, Romania declared war on Germany.
11 Nov 1918 Armistice of Compiègne▲
At 5am Paris time, Germany signed an armistice with the Allies in railway carriage No. 2419 D at Compiègne, France, to end its involvement in World War I. The armistice went into effect at 11am and, although not a formal surrender, demanded that the Germans withdraw their troops to behind their own borders, renounce the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, release all prisoners, promise to pay reparations, and surrender their fleet and materials.
11–21 Nov 1918 Republic of Alsace-Lorraine▲
Inspired by the revolution elsewhere in Germany, demonstrators rallied in Strasbourg and, on 11 November, the Soldier’s Council (Soviet) of Strasbourg proclaimed the independent Republic of Alsace-Lorraine. The Soviet was opposed by the National Council of Alsace-Lorraine, which declared itself the sole legal authority and requested French military assistance to restore order. The French arrived on 21 November, bringing an end to the Soviet.