Northern Africa 411: Barbarian partition of Spain
In the spring of 411, following the death of Alaric, Honorius’ newly appointed commander Flavius Constantius crossed the Alps into Gaul and defeated both Gerontius and Constantine III. With the downfall of Gerontius, his barbarian foederati—the Alans, Vandals, and Suebi—partitioned Hispaniae between them.
411 Battle of Arles▲
In early 411 Honorius’ newly appointed magister militum, the competent Flavius Constantius, crossed the Alps from Italy into Gaul, accompanied by a barbarian general named Ulfilas (perhaps a commander of the Hunnic forces requested by Honorius in 409). Constantius arrived outside Arelate (Arles) shortly after Gerontius began his siege and quickly won over most of the rebel general’s army. His cause lost, Gerontius fled to Spain, while Constantius continued the siege that he had started.
411 Siege of Arles▲
Having expelled Gerontius in mid 411, Honorius’ magister militum Flavius Constantius continued the siege of Constantine III in Arelate (Arles), defeating Constantine’s general Edobich when he tried to relieve his master with a force of German recruits from the Rhine. After four months of the siege—and concerned by reports of Jovinus’ revolt in northern Gaul—Constantius launched a full-on assault of the city, convincing the people of Arelate to open their gates and surrender Constantine, who had attempted to escape punishment by ordaining himself as a priest. Dispatched as captives into Italy, Constantine and his son Julian were then killed by agents of Honorius on the Mincio river, and on 18 September 411 had their heads displayed on spikes in Ravenna.
411 Death of Gerontius▲
Having fled from Flavius Constantius in Gaul in mid 411, the rebel general Gerontius took refuge in Hispaniae only for his Spanish troops to also turn against him. Besieged in his own estate in Tarraco, he held out against an overnight attack until early the next morning when his enemies set his house ablaze. With all hope now lost, Gerontius killed his wife and his Alan companion, then fell on his own dagger.
411 Barbarian partition of Spain▲
After the fall of Gerontius in mid 411, his appointed emperor Maximus fled into western Hispaniae and took refuge with the Hasding Vandals. In that same year, the Hasdings joined Gerontius’ other barbarian foederati—who had settled in areas determined by lots—in partitioning the provinces of the diocese among themselves, with the Hasdings and Suebi taking Gallaecia, the Siling Vandals Baetica, and the Alans Lusitania and Carthageniensis. This seems to have secured some degree of peace in the region, with local provincial elites resuming governance under barbarian domination after three years of civil war and turmoil.