Northern Africa 373: Firmus of Mauretania
Antagonized by corruption in Roman Africa, the Berber Numidian prince Firmus led a tribal revolt in 372. By the time Roman reinforcements arrived under Count Theodosius in 373, Firmus and his followers had laid waste to much of the region and sacked a number of major cities, including Iol Caesarea. Defeated and hunted down by Theodosius, Firmus eventually killed himself to avoid falling into Roman hands.
368? Third Austoriani Raid▲
In c. 368, the Austoriani, emboldened by their earlier successes, invaded Roman Africa and attacked Leptis Magna, which they besieged for eight days before giving up and returning home. Some time after this raid, Valentinian’s inspector Palladius finally arrived in Africa, but immediately accepted bribes from the region’s commanding general, Count Romanus. Thus corrupted, Palladius, despite being shown first-hand the devastation that the Austoriani had caused, denounced those who had reported the raids to the emperor as liars and they were instead put to death.
370 Count Arintheus’ expedition▲
In response to the crisis in Armenia, Valens sent Count Arintheus to the East with an army in 370. By this point Prince Pap had lost hope, desperately executing the turncoat generals Cylaces and Arrabannes in an attempt to appease Shapur II. Arintheus’ arrival restored the situation, but drew condemnation from the Persians, who saw it as a violation of the Treaty of Dura (363).
372–375 Firmus of Mauretania▲
After the death of his father Nubel in c. 370, the Berber Numidian prince Firmus killed his illegitimate brother Zammac, a favorite of the corrupt comes Africae Romanus. Realizing that he stood no chance of justice in Roman Africa under Romanus, Firmus launched a revolt in 372 and, gaining support from local tribes, captured or sacked a number of major Roman cities, including Iol Caesarea. Firmus’ rebellion lasted until 375 when, defeated and hunted down by Valentinian’s magister equitum Count Theodosius, he hung himself to avoid falling into Roman hands.