Sub-Saharan Africa 1906: Conquest of the Sahara

Political map of Sub-Saharan Africa on 12 Feb 1906 (The Scramble for Africa: Conquest of the Sahara), showing the following events: Karma revolt; Algeciras Conference; Occupation of Agadez; Bambatha Rebellion; Ubangi-Shari-Chad.

The first French military expeditions crossed the Sahara in 1900, defeating the Ahaggar Tuareg in 1902. However, it was not until 1906 that the French sent a permanent occupation force to Agadez and thereby secured their control of trans-Saharan trade to the west of the Tibesti Mountains.

Main Events

? Dec 1905–? Mar 1906 Karma revolt

Rejecting French-imposed taxation and the reorganization of native societies in the Niger, Oumarou Karma launched a peasant revolt in the Niger River valley. In an attempt to disrupt French communications, Karma ordered the destruction of telegraph lines and attacked convoys; the French responded with a four-column offensive from Dori, Gao, Tahoua, and Zinder. Defeating Karma’s forces in open battle, the French drove him into the Zarmaganda, where he was killed in March wikipedia

16 Jan–7 Apr 1906 Algeciras Conference

In response to the Moroccan Crisis of 1905, representatives of Germany, France, Britain, the United States, Morocco, Russia, and a number of other European states met at Algeciras, Spain, to discuss the future of Morocco. The conference concluded by confirming Morocco’s independence, thereby rejecting French attempts to establish a protectorate over the country. However, France’s special position in the country was recognized, with France and Spain having rights to advise and regulate the Moroccan wikipedia

? ?? 1906–1 Aug 1907 Occupation of Agadez

French troops occupied the Sultanate of Agadez, securing control of the Aïr Mountains and the route between Algeria and Niger. When Sultan Othman Ben Abdel Qadr proved uncooperative, he was deposed and replaced with the exiled former sultan, Ibrahim ed-Dasouqy, on 1 August 1907. Ed-Dasouqy’s new reign would only last into 1908, when the French lost patience and replaced him in turn with Abd-Er-Rahman wikipedia

8 Feb–8 Jul 1906 Bambatha Rebellion

Zulu resistance to the British introduction of a poll tax in Natal turned violent in February 1906, with the killing of two British officers near Richmond. When the Natal government declared a state of emergency, amaZondi chief Bambatha kaMancinza and his followers withdrew to the Nkandla forest, using it as a base for guerrilla attacks. In June the government defeated and killed Bambatha in a battle at Mome Gorge; even so, the war lasted for another month and led to several thousand Zulu wikipedia

11 Feb 1906 Ubangi-Shari-Chad

The French colony of Ubangi-Shari was merged with the French Military Territory of Chad to form the Ubangi-Shari-Chad colony. The amalgamated colony would last until 1916 when—having joined French Equatorial Africa in 1910—Ubangi-Shari and Chad were again wikipedia