North America 1911: Mexican Revolution
Mexico had been stable for four decades, most of that time under the presidency of Porfirio Diaz. But by 1910, Diaz was almost 80 and the people had grown resentful of his repressive regime. Revolts sprang up across the country, forcing Diaz to flee. However the Mexican Revolution failed to provide a universally acceptable successor and soon collapsed into a multi-sided civil war.
26 Nov–23 Dec 1908 Dutch-Venezuela War▲
In 1908, growing economic tensions between Venezuelan President Cipriano Castro and the foreign powers culminated in Castro placing a virtual ban on foreign shipping to Venezuelan ports. In response to pleas from their merchants in Curaçao—and with the acquiescence of the United States—the Netherlands sent a squadron of coastal defence ship Jacob van Heemskerck and two protected cruisers to blockade Venezuela. The conflict ended when Castro left for Europe for medical treatment and was deposed in absentia by Vice President Juan Gomez.
12 Dec 1909–30 Aug 1910 US intervention in Nicaragua▲
After Nicaraguan President José Santos Zelaya ordered the execution of two Americans accused of collaborating with Juan José Estrada’s rebel forces in December 1909, the United States severed relations with Nicaragua. On 12 December, the US landed marines in the country, pressuring the resignation of President José Santos Zelaya two days later. US forces remained in Nicaragua until August 1910, when Estrada—the former rebel and their preferred candidate—was elected president in place of Zelaya’s successor.
19 Nov 1910 Outbreak of Mexican Revolution▲
Francisco Madero crossed from Texas into Mexico, calling for revolt against President Porfirio Díaz—who had just been proclaimed for his eighth term as president despite increasing resentment against the 80-year-old’s long rule. Although Madero’s initial attempt at taking Ciudad Porfirio Díaz (now Piedra Negras, Coahuila) was driven back, it was followed the following day (20 November) by several uprisings across the country. Most important was in Chihuahua state, where Madero supporter Pascual Orozco seized control of the federal outpost of Ciudad Guerrero. The Mexican Revolution had begun.
24 Mar 1911 Zapata leads revolt in Morelos▲
Emiliano Zapata became commander of 800 revolutionaries in Morelos, Mexico.
28 Mar 1911 US protectorate over Honduras▲
In 1911, former Honduran president Manuel Bonilla led an insurrection against sitting President Miguel Davila, further undermining the ex-general’s government and disrupting payments of Honduras’s considerable debt. In response, the United States Marines landed in the country, ordering a ceasefire and persuading both sides to meet aboard the USS Marietta. After negotiations, the two parties agreed to a US-selected provisional president, who would resign in a year in favor of Bonilla.
25 May 1911 Díaz resigns in Mexico▲
Mexican President Porfirio Díaz resigned after riots in Mexico City.