North America 1863: Vicksburg and Gettysburg
After a stunning victory at Chancellorsville (30 April–6 May 1863), Lee's Army of Northern Virginia struck north into Pennsylvania only to be decisively defeated at Gettysburg (1–3 July). Meanwhile Union forces captured Vicksburg (18 May–4 July), completing their control of the Mississippi River and physically splitting the Confederacy.
30 Apr–6 May 1863 Battle of Chancellorsville▲
Confederate forces under Robert E. Lee defeated Union Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker’s Army of the Potomac at Battle of Chancellorsville in Virginia.
18 May–4 Jul 1863 Siege of Vicksburg▲
Union forces under Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant captured the Confederate city of Vicksburg, Mississippi, taking control of the river and further cutting of Confederate supply lines.
7 Jun 1863 French enter Mexico City▲
French troops under General Bazaine entered Mexico City after the Republican government fled.
20 Jun 1863 West Virginia becomes US state▲
The mountainous, increasingly industrial Kanawha region of Virginia had very low rates slave-ownership and strongly opposed secession. A month after Virginia’s secession, a rival government was established in the northwestern city of Wheeling, which was later formally recognized as the State of West Virginia.
1–3 Jul 1863 Battle of Gettysburg▲
Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee followed up his victory at Chancellorsville with another invasion of the north, hoping to disrupt Union battle plans. However, Union Maj. Gen. George Meade’s Army of the Potomac defeated Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia at Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, ending the campaign.