North America 1837: Canadian Rebellions

Political map of North America & the Caribbean on 05 Dec 1837 (Successors of New Spain: Canadian Rebellions), showing the following events: Treaties of Velasco; Fort Parker massacre; Statehood for Arkansas; Formation of Wisconsin Territory; Alvarado’s Rebellion; Seminole removal; Statehood for Michigan; US recognition of Texas; Lower Canada Rebellion; Upper Canada Rebellion.
Seminole 1837–43

In the north, the British colonies of Upper and Lower Canada were growing in population but still found themselves dominated by local trading oligarchies. Increasing dissatisfaction led to calls for government reform and rebellions in 1837. Although the first revolts were quickly suppressed, many rebels fled to the US border and continued the fight from there.

Main Events

14 May 1836 Treaties of Velasco

General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna of the Mexican Republic and Interim President David G. Burnet of the Republic of Texas signed two treaties at Velasco, Texas, detailing the end of hostilities between the two belligerents and setting the southern boundary of Texas at the Rio Grande. However, neither treaty was ratified by the Mexican government, as Santa Anna was at the time a prisoner of wikipedia

19 May 1836 Fort Parker massacre

At least a hundred American Indians, including Comanche, Kiowa, Caddo, and Wichita, raided Fort Parker, Republic of Texas, killing five men and capturing two women and three children. This was one of the first of a series of large scale Comanche raids which would target Texas and Mexico over the following two wikipedia

15 Jun 1836 Statehood for Arkansas

Arkansas Territory, United States of America, was admitted to the Union as the 25th state, Arkansas. It continued to dispute Miller County with the Republic of Texas and the Indian Territory, but was not backed by the US in this wikipedia

4 Jul 1836 Formation of Wisconsin Territory

The Wisconsin Territory was split off from the Michigan Territory, United States of America. As an inducement to give up its claim over the Toledo Strip to Ohio, the Upper Peninsula was assigned to Michigan Territory, giving it the present-day borders of wikipedia

6 Nov 1836–? Aug 1838 Alvarado’s Rebellion

Juan Bautista Alvarado, president of Alta California’s legislature, seized control of Monterey and proclaimed California’s independence from the Mexican Republic. He was supported by federalist Californios and American merchants, particularly Isaac Graham, and vowed to rejoin Mexico after the fall of the Centralist government. In 1838 Alvarado marched south and successfully conquered the rest of Alta California, pushing Mexico City to confirm him as governor. Alvarado promptly accepted this role, ending the wikipedia

? Jan 1837–? Nov 1843 Seminole removal

After United States forces in Florida Territory killed or captured numerous Seminole in a string of actions, some Seminole chiefs arranged a truce with Commanding General Thomas Jesup. In March the chiefs agreed to relocation to the west, with more Seminole arriving in the Army camps to surrender. However, tensions in the camps encouraged many to escape before transportation and the war resumed, disrupting relocation for another five wikipedia

26 Jan 1837 Statehood for Michigan

In 1835, the Territory of Michigan approved a constitution for statehood. The process was delayed for over a year due to Michigan’s dispute with Ohio over the Toledo Strip, which escalated to a military standoff before Congress intervened and awarded the Strip to Ohio. Michigan then became a US State on 26 January wikipedia

3 Mar 1837 US recognition of Texas

The United States of America recognized the independence of the Republic of Texas from Mexico, with US President Andrew Jackson nominating Alcee La Branche as Minister to wikipedia

6 Nov–14 Dec 1837 Lower Canada Rebellion

British authorities in the colony of Lower Canada attempted to arrest 26 members of the Patriote movement, triggering rebellion in the countryside. Despite a Patriote victory at Saint-Denis, the rebels were defeated in further encounters and fled to the United wikipedia

4–13 Dec 1837 Upper Canada Rebellion

Encouraged by the Lower Canada Rebellion, rebels in the British colony of Upper Canada led by William Lyon Mackenzie marched on Toronto from Newmarket but were dispersed by the British at Montgomery’s Tavern. Meanwhile, another group of rebels under Charles Duncombe attempted to reach Toronto from the settlement of London but were defeated en route at wikipedia