North America 1852: Opening up the West
The surge in migrants heading west put increasing pressure on the Oregon Trail. To secure the Trail, the US government signed the Treaty of Fort Laramie with the tribes of the Great Plains, who agreed to guarantee the safe passage of travelers and allow for the construction of forts in return for an annuity. Promised for fifty years, the Treaty barely lasted five before settlers and prospectors were spilling off the Trail in search of land and gold.
2 Dec 1850–27 Aug 1851 Bartlett-Conde Compromise▲
Commissioners John Russell Bartlett of the United States of America and General Pedro Garcia Conde of the United Mexican States agreed to a compromise border in the disputed Mesilla strip. Bartlett was overruled by the principal US Surveyor Andrew B. Gray when he finally arrived on July 19 and, after heated disputes between the two Americans, the agreement was left unsigned.
17 Sep 1851 Treaty of Fort Laramie▲
United States treaty commissioners signed the Fort Laramie Treaty with representatives of the Cheyenne, Sioux, Arapaho, Crow, Assiniboine, Mandan, Hidasta and Arikara nations at Fort Laramie, in what was then unorganized territory but is now Wyoming. The US was guaranteed safe passage along the Oregon Trail in return for promising an annuity of 50,000 dollars for fifty years.
1 Jun–29 Oct 1852 Raousset’s invasion of Sonora▲
French filibuster Gaston de Raousset-Boulbon and his men invaded Sonora, United Mexican States, pretending to be a mining company called La Compenia Restauradora de la Mina de la Arizona. They captured Hermosillo, the state capital, but were forced to retreat to Guaymas and surrender.
13 Oct–10 Nov 1852 Federation of Central America▲
A Federation of Central America formed by El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua lasted less than a month.