Northern Eurasia 1939: Soviet-Japanese Border Wars
The late 1930s saw international stability further deteriorate, with a Japanese invasion of China followed by the German seizure of Austria and Czechoslovakia. Japan's expansionism brought it into direct conflict with the Soviet Union. In July and August 1938, and again from May to September 1939, the Japanese were beaten back in undeclared border wars with Soviet and Mongolian troops.
5 Dec 1936 Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic▲
Upon the adoption of the 1936 Soviet Constitution, the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within the Russian RSFSR becomes the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, a separate constituent republic of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
5 Dec 1936 Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic▲
With the adoption of the 1936 Soviet Constitution, the Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast of the Russian SFSR becomes the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic, a separate constituent republic of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
5 Dec 1936 Dissolution of Transcaucasian SFSR▲
With the adoption of the 1936 Soviet Constitution, the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic is dissolved and succeeded by the Armenian, Azerbaidzhan, and Georgian Soviet Socialist Republics.
7 Jul 1937 Marco Polo Bridge Incident▲
On the night of 7 July 1937 Japanese forces based at Fengtai crossed into Chinese territory to conduct military exercises, but ended up exchanging fire with Chinese troops at Wanping. Further clashes occurred later that night and over the next day, most notably at Marco Polo Bridge on the outskirts of Beiping (Beijing). By the 11th these confused skirmishes had escalated into a full-scale battle in which Beiping and Tianjin fell to Japanese forces, making them the first shots of the Second Sino-Japanese War.
29 Jul–11 Aug 1938 Battle of Lake Khasan▲
Border clash between Japanese troops in Manchukuo and Soviet Union
1–10 Oct 1938 Occupation of the Sudetenland▲
On 30 September 1938 Britain and France signed the Munich Agreement, stipulating that Czechoslovakia must cede the Sudetenland to Germany. Although not consulted in the agreement, the Czechoslovak government reluctantly accepted its terms. The next day German troops began moving into the Sudetenland, completely occupying it by 10 October.
1 Apr 1939 End of Spanish Civil War▲
By the end of March 1939 the Francisco Franco’s Nationalists controlled all Spanish territory except for the part of the port of Alicante, where thousands of Republicans expecting evacuation had assembled. On the morning of 1 April, these too surrendered. That day Franco proclaimed victory in a radio speech, marking the end of the Spanish Civil War.
11 May–16 Sep 1939 Battles of Khalkhin Gol▲
Border clashes between Japanese troops in Manchukuo and Soviet Union, culminating in Japanese defeat at Nomonhan