Northern Africa 210: Rise of Gadarat
In the 200s Gadarat, negus of the ascendant African Empire of Aksum, entered into an alliance with the King of Saba’ and, together with the rulers of Ḥaḑramawt, and Qatabān, attacked Ḥimyar, the dominant kingdom in southern Arabia. The war went well for Aksum, which occupied the Ḥimyarite capital of Zafar in c. 210.
203 Roman Numidia▲
Although formally part of Africa Proconsularis—and continuing to remain subordinate to it—Numidia had its own legionary garrison and had been placed under its own imperial legatus since 40 AD. This informal arrangement continued until 203, when Septimius Severus officially made Numidia a separate province from Africa. The new province was also given territory from neighboring Mauretania Caesariensis, extending its power towards the Atlas Mountains.
206?–208 Rise of the Sasanids▲
In 205/6 the minor prince Pabag of the House of Sasan deposed his overlord, the Parthian client king Gochihr, to become ruler of Persis. After Pabag died in c.207, his sons Shapur and Ardashir fought a short civil war, from which Ardashir emerged victorious. Parthia’s inability to exercise its authority over Persis in these struggles only demonstrated how weak the empire had now become.
209?–210? Aksum–Saba’ Alliance▲
In the 200s Gadarat, Negus of the Empire of Aksum, sent a diplomatic mission to ’Alhan Nahfan of the Kingdom of Saba’ and the two forged a military alliance. The first target of the alliance seems to have been the Ḥimyarite Kingdom, which Saba’, Aksum, Ḥaḑramawt, and a resurgent or rebellious Qatabān attacked before c. 210. The war ended with Ḥimyar’s defeat in the early 210s, leaving Aksum in occupation of the Ḥimyarite capital Thifar (Zafar).