Sub-Saharan Africa 1913: French invasion of the Tibesti
The Anglo–French Treaty of 1899 placed the Tibesti Mountains (in the central Sahara) within French borders. This claim was disputed by the Ottoman Empire, but when the Ottomans were defeated by Italy in Tripolitania in 1911–12, they were compelled to abandon the region. The French took the opportunity to invade the Tibesti the following year, where they now faced and defeated the Senussi, but were in turn forced to withdraw during the desert revolts of World War I. It would not be until 1929–30 that the French would finally pacify the region.
7 Mar 1912 Liberian Loan Agreement▲
With his country facing rising debts and territorial encroachment by the neighboring French and British colonies, President Arthur Barclay of Liberia obtained a 40-year international loan of US$1.7 million. As part of the conditions of the loan, the Liberian government had to agree to four Western powers (Britain, France, Germany, and the United States) controlling its revenues for the next 14 years, until 1926.
30 Mar 1912 Treaty of Fez▲
In March 1912 Sultan Abd al-Hafid of Morocco, his kingdom by now overrun by French forces, signed the Treaty of Fez with the French diplomat Eugène Regnault. The treaty gave France authority over non-Moroccan citizens and effectively made Morocco a French protectorate, with the exception of Tangier and areas reserved for Spain. In August Abd al-Hafid abdicated in favor of his half-brother Yusef, departing for exile in France and then Tangier.
Apr 1912–Mar 1913 Ottoman evacuation of Tibesti▲
In spring 1912, following the Italian invasion of Tripolitania, the Ottoman Empire evacuated its forces from Tibesti and Borku. While most headed north, the Ottoman lieutenant at Ain Galakka traveled to Ennedi and, reportedly under orders, declared a protectorate over the region; he remained there until late March 1913 when ninety French riflemen arrived and dislodged his contingent.
18 Oct 1912 Treaty of Ouchy▲
The Kingdom of Italy signed the Treaty of Lausanne/Ouchy with the Ottoman Empire at Ouchy, in the south of Lausanne, Switzerland. The treaty ended the Italo-Turkish War, with the Ottomans agreeing to withdraw from Trablus and Benghazi vilayets (Libya) in return for the Italian withdrawal from Rhodes and the other Aegean islands it had occupied during the war. Italy failed to follow through on this last point and instead kept control of Rhodes, in part because of the outbreak of World War I two years later.
? Jan 1913–7 Aug 1916 French invasion of the Tibesti▲
In early 1913 forces from French Equatorial Africa advanced into Borkou and Ennedi, assaulting and capturing the Senussi defensive post at Ain Galaka in the Tibesti in November. In December they captured Gouro, the former Senussi headquarters, completing their expulsion of the Senussi from Borkou and Ennedi by February 1914. However, the French position remained tenuous and, when revolt broke out in the Sahara in 1916, they hastily evacuated the region, not to return until the late 1920s.