Southern Asia 1925: Soviet Reorganization of Central Asia

The Soviet victory in Central Asia had brought the former Russian protectorates of Khiva and Bukhara under Soviet control, but also provoked revolts among the Central Asian peoples. By 1924 these revolts had been crushed, allowing the Soviets to assert their authority over the region and abolish the semi-independent Soviet Republics which had succeeded Khiva and Bukhara. In their place, the Soviets began reorganizing Central Asia along ethnic lines, starting with new Uzbek and Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republics.


Changes to the map 13 October 1924–12 May 1925

Soviet Union: The Bukharan SSR and the Khorazmian SSR have been abolished and replaced with the Turkmen SSR and the Uzbek SSR in the Soviet reorganization of Central Asia.

Persia: Reza Khan has crushed the Sheikh Khazal revolt, ending the independence of Khuzestan and the Bakhtiari.

Iraq: King Feisal has removed refugees to the north, limiting Saudi and Ikhwan influence in the south.

Yemen: Yemen has conquered Tihama from Asir.

Siam: The French influence in the east has been ended with the Franco-Siamese Treaty.

British Protectorates in the Persian Gulf

The British Residency of the Persian Gulf maintains British India influence in a number of Gulf states. These states are nominally independent - and shown as such in most atlases from the period - but have all signed treaties guaranteeing British control over their foreign affairs.

The Sultanate of Muscat and Oman is the only one of these states with significant international relations, having obtained trade agreements with the US and France before it signed its treaty with Britain. Maps of the time often show Trucial Oman and even Qatar as regions of Oman.

Trucial Oman is the region to the west of Oman which collectively signed treaties with Britain. The sheikhdoms of this region are often called the Trucial States, and will become the United Arab Emirates. However at this time they have little unity, with no regional council until 1952.

Indian Empire

The British Indian Empire, also known as the British Raj, is comprised of a complex of presidencies, provinces, protectorates, and agencies. Only the top level subdivisions are shown here.

The area under direct British rule is known as British India and made up of presidencies and provinces - a presidency simply being the name for an older province.

Outside British India, but often included within the sphere of the presidencies/provinces, are the hundreds of protectorates or 'princely states'. These are indirectly ruled states, the largest being Hyderabad, Kashmir, and Mysore. The others are either collected into agencies - which may in turn contain other smaller agencies - or fall under the sway of the provinces.

Main Events

27 Oct 1924 Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic

As part of the Soviet reorganization of former Russian Central Asia along ethnic lines, the Transcaspian Region and the Turkmen Oblast of the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic are merged to form the Turkmen Soviet Socialist wikipedia

27 Oct 1924 Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic

As part of the Soviet reorganization of former Russian Central Asia along ethnic lines, the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, the Bukharan People’s Republic, and the Khorezm People’s Republic are abolished and portions of their territory merged to form the Uzbek Soviet Socialist wikipedia

? Nov 1924 End of Sheikh Khazal rebellion

Reza Khan, Prime Minister of Persia, sends 3,000 soldiers to subdue the rebellious Sheikh of Mohammerah Khaz’al al-Ka’bi in Khuzestan. The Persian government defeats Sheikh Khaz’al’s Bakhtiari allies in the Zagros mountains and advances on the Khuzestan plain, securing Ahwaz and Dezful. Accepting defeat, the Sheikh disbands his forces and retires to wikipedia

14 Feb 1925 Franco-Siamese Treaty

The French Republic signs the Franco-Siamese Treaty with the Kingdom of Siam, whereby the French renounce their special rights in Siam—in particular their sphere of influence in the east of the country—and arrange for the arbitration of wikipedia