Asia Pacific 1913: Second Chinese Revolution

Although military strongman Yuan Shikai had been made provisional president of the new Republic of China to preserve peace, he soon began acting more and more dictatorial, cracking down on Sun Yatsen's Nationalist Party (the Kuomintang). In 1913, Sun attempted to launch another revolution but was forced to flee to Japan.


Treaty Ports

Treaty ports were towns opened to foreign trade by unequal treaties in China. Foreigners operating within treaty ports enjoyed extraterritoriality, being subject to their home country's laws. Unlike concessions such as Hong Kong, these territories were not directly leased by the foreign powers and did not have sizable foreign garrisons.

Treaty ports are not shown in the maps after the 1911 Chinese Revolution in order to give a clearer picture of the chaos in China itself and as by that point their numbers had stabilized. After the revolution, some of the smaller ports were phased out while the others became less important as the situation in China meant that only the concessions could provide foreigners with security. Most, however, still continued on into the 1940s when the Japanese entry into World War II and foreign agreements with China brought them to an end.

See this map for treaty ports in 1907, when the system was at its peak.

Yangtze River

By the terms of the Treaty of Tientsin (1858), foreign vessels including warships had the right to free navigation on the Yangtze River. In practical terms, this right extended only as far as Yichang until 1900, when advances in steam navigation allowed access as far inland as Chongqing.

Main Events

4 Apr 1912 Tibetan Independence

After the disintegration of Qing power in Lhasa in the wake of the Chinese Revolution of 1911-1912, the Kingdom of Tibet declared its independence from the newly formed Republic of wikipedia

12 Jul–1 Sep 1913 Second Chinese Revolution

Half of China’s southern provinces rebelled against Yuan Shikai, President of the Republic of China, and in support of Sun Yatsen’s Kuomintang, beginning the Second Chinese Revolution. However Yuan defeated the leading Kuomintang military force of Jiangxi province in early August, capturing the southern capital of Nanjing on 1 September. Sun and other instigators of the rebellion fled to wikipedia