North America 1843: Oregon Dispute

Political map of North America & the Caribbean on 02 Oct 1843 (Manifest Destiny: Oregon Dispute), showing the following events: Jones’s War; Webster-Ashburton Treaty; Mier Expedition; Construction of Fort Victoria; Santo Tomás Colony; Naval Battle of Campeche; Creation of Provisional Government of Oregon; Great Migration of 1843.

By the early 1840s, American settlers, arriving overland in increasing numbers along what became known as the Oregon Trail, were beginning to challenge the dominance of Britain's Hudson's Bay Company in the jointly-occupied Oregon Country. In 1843, these settlers had enough influence to push through a pro-US provisional government, encouraging their supporters in the east to clamor for the US seizure of the entire region.

Main Events

19–21 Oct 1842 Jones’s War

Having heard of an outbreak of war between the United States and Mexico while he was stationed in Peru, Commodore Thomas Jones, commander of the US Pacific Squadron, arrived at Monterey, capital of the Mexican territory of Alta California, and forced the capitulation of the city. He withdrew a few days later after discovering he has made a mistake and that there was no wikipedia

10 Nov 1842 Webster-Ashburton Treaty

The Webster-Ashburton Treaty between the United Kingdom and the United States resolved the Aroostook War, a nonviolent dispute over location of Maine-New Brunswick border. The treaty was signed by United States Secretary of State Daniel Webster and British diplomat Alexander Baring, 1st Baron Ashburton. It established the border between Lake Superior and the Lake of the Woods, originally defined in the Treaty of Paris in 1783, defined crimes subject to extradition, called for an end to the slave trade on the high seas, and agreed to shared use of the Great wikipedia

25 Nov–26 Dec 1842 Mier Expedition

The 700-man Somervell Expedition set out from San Antonio, Republic of Texas, and captured Laredo, with an offshoot of 308 Texians under William Fisher marching on to take the Mexican city of Ciudad Mier; at Mier, Fisher unexpectedly encountered 3,000 Mexicans under Pedro de Ampudia and, after a bitter battle, he and his 242 surviving followers were forced to wikipedia

? ?? 1843 Construction of Fort Victoria

The British erected Fort Albert/Camosun in the south of Vancouver Island, establishing a permanent presence in the region. In 1846 it was renamed Fort wikipedia

19 Apr 1843–? ?? 1855 Santo Tomás Colony

Guatemala authorized the administration of Santo Tomás by the Compagnie Belge de Colonisation, a private Belgian company under the protection of King Leopold I of Belgium. The company was eventually forced to withdraw due to disease and financial wikipedia

30 Apr–16 May 1843 Naval Battle of Campeche

A squadron of warships from the Republic of Yucatan and the Republic of Texas clashed indecisively with a small Mexican squadron off Campeche, Yucatan, on April 30. Rearming to include the ironclad steamships Guadalupe and Moctezuma, the Mexicans returned on May 16, but were again fought to a draw—however the unfavorable odds would force the Texians to retire to Galveston, Texas, on the wikipedia

2 May–5 Jul 1843 Creation of Provisional Government of Oregon

After two years of negotiation, American and French Canadian pioneers meeting at Champoeg, in the Willamette Valley of Oregon Country, voted to create a provisional government to provide for law and defense. The vote succeeded due to the growing number of Americans and led to the formation of the Provisional Government of Oregon two months wikipedia

22 May–? Oct 1843 Great Migration of 1843

The first major wagon train, consisting of as many as 1,000 American settlers, traveled the Oregon Trail from Elm Grove, Missouri, to the Willamette Valley, Oregon Country. Before now, the final leg of the Trail had been considered impassable to wikipedia