North America 1843: Oregon Dispute
By the early 1840s, American settlers, arriving overland in increasing numbers along what became known as the Oregon Trail, were beginning to challenge the dominance of Britain's Hudson's Bay Company in the jointly-occupied Oregon Country. In 1843, these settlers had enough influence to push through a pro-US provisional government, encouraging their supporters in the east to clamor for the US seizure of the entire region.
19–21 Oct 1842 Jones’s War▲
Having heard of an outbreak of war between the United States and Mexico while he was stationed in Peru, Commodore Thomas Jones, commander of the US Pacific Squadron, arrived at Monterey, capital of the Mexican territory of Alta California, and forced the capitulation of the city. He withdrew a few days later after discovering he has made a mistake and that there was no war.
10 Nov 1842 Webster-Ashburton Treaty▲
The Webster-Ashburton Treaty between the United Kingdom and the United States resolved the Aroostook War, a nonviolent dispute over location of Maine-New Brunswick border. The treaty was signed by United States Secretary of State Daniel Webster and British diplomat Alexander Baring, 1st Baron Ashburton. It established the border between Lake Superior and the Lake of the Woods, originally defined in the Treaty of Paris in 1783, defined crimes subject to extradition, called for an end to the slave trade on the high seas, and agreed to shared use of the Great Lakes.
25 Nov–26 Dec 1842 Mier Expedition▲
The 700-man Somervell Expedition set out from San Antonio, Republic of Texas, and captured Laredo, with an offshoot of 308 Texians under William Fisher marching on to take the Mexican city of Ciudad Mier; at Mier, Fisher unexpectedly encountered 3,000 Mexicans under Pedro de Ampudia and, after a bitter battle, he and his 242 surviving followers were forced to surrender.
? ?? 1843 Construction of Fort Victoria▲
The British erected Fort Albert/Camosun in the south of Vancouver Island, establishing a permanent presence in the region. In 1846 it was renamed Fort Victoria.
19 Apr 1843–? ?? 1855 Santo Tomás Colony▲
Guatemala authorized the administration of Santo Tomás by the Compagnie Belge de Colonisation, a private Belgian company under the protection of King Leopold I of Belgium. The company was eventually forced to withdraw due to disease and financial losses.
30 Apr–16 May 1843 Naval Battle of Campeche▲
A squadron of warships from the Republic of Yucatan and the Republic of Texas clashed indecisively with a small Mexican squadron off Campeche, Yucatan, on April 30. Rearming to include the ironclad steamships Guadalupe and Moctezuma, the Mexicans returned on May 16, but were again fought to a draw—however the unfavorable odds would force the Texians to retire to Galveston, Texas, on the 19th.
2 May–5 Jul 1843 Creation of Provisional Government of Oregon▲
After two years of negotiation, American and French Canadian pioneers meeting at Champoeg, in the Willamette Valley of Oregon Country, voted to create a provisional government to provide for law and defense. The vote succeeded due to the growing number of Americans and led to the formation of the Provisional Government of Oregon two months later.
22 May–? Oct 1843 Great Migration of 1843▲
The first major wagon train, consisting of as many as 1,000 American settlers, traveled the Oregon Trail from Elm Grove, Missouri, to the Willamette Valley, Oregon Country. Before now, the final leg of the Trail had been considered impassable to wagons.