Key to the Historical Atlas of Europe

Caveat on all the maps

These maps exist for educational and general reference purposes only. While all efforts have been made to make them as accurate as possible without destroying clarity, there is no absolute guarantee of accuracy. As such, these maps have no reliability for purposes of navigation, border disputes, or tribal claims.

These maps are about power and political reality, not legitimacy

International borders reflect those recognized at the time by most powers, colors reflect control at the time. Neither has anything to do with what was then or is now perceived as right or wrong, just or unjust.

Legend for the Historical Atlas of Europe (May 429)

Political Control Color Guide

As used in the Historical Atlas of Europe (May 429). May differ for other dates and regions.

Roman Empire, Eastern EmpireKidarite Kingdom, HunsPersia
No Central ControlVandalsBurgundians
FranksSalian FranksWestern Empire
VisigothsKingdom Of The SuebiHuns
BonifatiusYuebanRouran

Stripes indicate regions of divided control or influence. Annotations and rollovers will often provide more information.

More on influence and control...

More on the colors used...

Alliances

Alliances are indicated by a frame around a polity's name on the map. Styles shown below are for the Historical Atlas of Europe (May 429). They will differ for other dates and regions.

NEUTRAL or Dependent Other countries and dependents

Typography

Confederation
Multinational confederation
INDEPENDENT STATE
An internationally-recognized independent sovereign state
Dependent State
An internationally-recognized state under outside control
INDEPENDENT REGION
A state or region which is de facto independent but lacks widespread international recognition
Subdivision
A dependent region administered as a single unit
INDEPENDENT GROUP
An effectively independent group of people with either little claim to independence or minimal unity (for instance: civil war factions, tribal bodies, cultures, etc.)
Dependent Group/Region
A group or disunified region with little or no independence
  Microstate/territory
Microstate, settlement, base, or colony (same typographic convention as above). Color shows control.
Treaty port
Treaty port or leased facilities. Color shows control.
(annotation)
A note providing more information on a polity or region
(Leader)
The leader of a polity
 
Capital
A relevant capital city
 
Headquarters
A temporary or de facto capital or headquarters
 
City
A relevant city
 
Conflict
A battle, revolt, massacre, raid, or other conflict
 
Siege
A siege
 
Geopoint
A relevant geographical point of interest

Borders

                       
An internationally-recognized international border
                       
A de facto, disputed, or poorly defined international border
                       
Unrecognized border or military front

Examples

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