Eastern Mediterranean 69 AD: Simon bar Giora
The Zealot capture of Jerusalem in early 68 AD brought an end to the Judean Provisional Government, but convinced the Jewish general Simon bar Giora—an opponent of both factions—to return from exile among the Sicarii and lead a revolt in spring. After seizing Idumea in southern Judea, Simon advanced on Jerusalem to defeat the Zealots by April 69.
? ?? 68–8 Sep 70 AD Simon bar Giora▲
After clashing with the Judean Provisional Government in 66/67 AD, the Jewish general Simon bar Giora took refuge in the Sicarii stronghold of Masada. When Jerusalem fell to the Zealots in early 68, Simon reemerged in March/April to lead a campaign against them. Defeating the Zealots by April 69, Simon was captured and executed following the Roman capture of Jerusalem in 70.
? Apr–8 Jun 68 AD Galba’s Rebellion▲
When Vindex led the Gallic provinces in revolt against Nero on behalf of Servius Sulpicius Galba, the 70-year-old Galba, fearing Nero would retaliate regardless, followed suit, leading the Spanish provinces in revolt in April 70 AD. Despite Vindex’s defeat a month or so later, the Praetorian Guards decided to support his claim and on 8 June were joined by the Senate in declaring Nero deposed.
May–Oct 68 AD Macer’s Rebellion▲
In May 68 AD Lucius Clodius Macer, legatus of the legion Legio III Augusta in Africa, rose in revolt against Nero, cutting off the vital African grain supply to Rome. Refusing to relinquish his command when Galba was proclaimed emperor, Macer was killed at the latter’s behest by the procurator Trebonius Garutianus.
8–9 Jun 68 AD Overthrow of Nero▲
In June 68 AD Nymphidius Sabinus, a prefect of the Praetorian Guard, spread the lie that Nero had fled to Egypt, persuading the troops to rise against him and the Senate to proclaim Galba emperor. Abandoned by his guards, Nero escaped the palace and committed suicide outside Rome with the assistance of his secretary. Nymphidius then declared himself Nero’s successor, only to be executed by the Praetorians as Galba approached Rome.
??–Mar 69 AD Nero of Cythnus▲
Some time in late 68 or early 69 AD a man claiming to be the recently deceased emperor Nero appeared in the Roman province of Achaia (Greece). Gathering together a group of army deserters, this false Nero set out to sea but was blown by storm to the island of Kythnos, where he supposedly established himself as a pirate. His reign here lasted for a month or so before he was arrested and executed by Lucius Nonius Calpurnius Asprenas, who was traveling east to take up the governorship of Galatia and Pamphylia.
15 Jan–16 Apr 69 AD Principate of Otho▲
On 15 January 69 AD, at the behest of the 36-year-old Marcus Salvius Otho, the Praetorian Guard turned on the Roman emperor Galba, killing him along with his co-consul Titus Vinius and successor Lucius Calpurnius Piso. Their heads were displayed on poles and Otho was proclaimed emperor. Although popular with the people due to his relative youth and resemblance to Nero, Otho’s reign was brought to an abrupt end when he was defeated by Vitellius at Bedriacum and chose to stab himself through the heart with a dagger.